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Deutsches Institut für Japanstudien
Steve R. Entrich

Steve R. Entrich

Steve R. Entrich
Sociology of Education
Since March 2013
(PhD Students, March 1, 2013 - September 30, 2013)


  • Education in Japan and Germany from a Comparative Point of View
  • International “Shadow Education”
  • Academic Achievement/Educational Attainment and Social Origin
  • Education Reform Policy and -Processes from a Comparative as well as Historic Point of View



Working Title: Shadow Education in Germany and Japan – An Instrument to Neutralize Disadvantaged Family Background?

Today, extracurricular, privately paid tuition or “shadow education”, as this type of teaching at private institutions is entitled, is a worldwide phenomenon. The importance of shadow education for the educational trajectory of students is constantly growing. Although there are a few studies about out-of-school education by now in Germany, there is no differentiated intercultural comparative study on this subject that may open up new perspectives.

The fundamental question of whether the increasing use of shadow education in Germany promotes social inequalities is of national interest. Using the example of Japan – a country where the investment in out-of-school lessons has a long tradition – it shall be shown that shadow education can serve not only as a means to an end, but might also function as some kind of compensatory education for disadvantaged students.

In addition to the data analysis based on the PISA survey of the year 2009, two country-specific data sets will be analyzed as part of this dissertation project (Japan: Hyogo High School Students’ Survey, HHSS 2011; Germany: Pathways from Late Childhood to Adulthood Study, LifE 2012). Furthermore, the implementation of an own survey, the JuNa-survey, will be carried out in Japan and Germany (An Investigation concerning Juku- and Nachhilfe-lessons in Japan and Germany, JuNa 2013). The need for the implementation of this supplementary survey results from the need for further insight into the shadow education systems of both countries. Although PISA provides us with two variables about intensity and frequency of out-of-school education, no data about supply and organization of Juku as well as students’ motivation to attend private schools, which explains the use of this supplementary education sufficiently, is provided.

Different analysis with data sets, such as TIMSS, however, have already shown that a deeper (and also more qualitative) insight into this sphere of education reality is needed to fully understand and interpret the empirical results in a meaningful way. This cross-cultural comparison of two extracurricular school systems shall lead to new insights and discoveries that will find wide publication.